After Empire, Before Nation: Competing Visions of Order in the Ottoman Empire After 1917



Abdulhamit Kirmizi, Istanbul Şehir University The examination of the connections between the Russian Revolution and the “Anatolian Revolution” (as the Turkish war of independence is sometimes called) is exciting, yet understudied. My paper will deal with the intriguing question of how (post-) Ottoman actors responded to and navigated within a new world changed by the Bolshevik Revolution after 1917. A chaotic new world needed to be ordered with innovative configurations of current ideological trends in a time when many loyalties persisted together. Sources speak of an alliance between Turkish nationalism and Bolshevism after the revolution. The immediate impressions on the revolution must have prevalent effects on Turkish leaders’ future visions of order. After the war, Mustafa Kemal tried to get the support of Bolshevism from the very first moment he started organizing the “anti-imperialist” national movement and considered implementing its principles for the liberation of the country without endangering Isl